Bodybuilding and doping - 7 current research results

  • Nandrolone still detectable after nine months

    The anabolic steroid Nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) can still be detected in some people up to nine months after taking it - says a study by the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden. Participants received a dose of 150 milligrams of Nandrolone decanoate and then experienced a monitoring of their urine in search of nandrolone and two related metabolites (19-norandrosterone and 19-noretiocholanolone). Nandrolone is a steroid infamous among athletes, which is associated with the closure of Olympic medal winners Linford Christie, Merlene Ottey, Marion Jones and Dieter Baumann. The duration of the degradation of the remedy varies greatly, for example, it was no longer detectable after 30 days for some athletes and after nine months for others. Factors such as dosage, duration of intake, body fat percentage and genetic degradation rate are responsible for these strong variations. It is advisable not to rely on tables with alleged degradation rates on the Internet, as these are most likely not based on current knowledge. (Study, published February 4,2016)

    Aromatase inhibitors increase insulin resistance

    Many bodybuilders take aromatase inhibitors, such as Arimidex, against the conversion of testosterone to estrogen. Too much estrogen causes gynecomastia, the formation of breast tissue. However, researchers have now found that the suppression of estrogen can lead to an increase in body fat content. Frasier Gibb of the British Heart Foundation for Cardiovascular Science at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland found that the use of aromatase inhibitors is related to the resistance to insulin uptake. The researchers measured blood sugar deposits and fat formation after taking aromatase inhibitors. The study shows that estrogen is an important regulator of blood sugar for men - just as previous studies have shown that estrogen helps to control body fat levels. (Journal Clinical Endrocrinology Metabolism, published on 11 March 2016)

    Hobby athletes largest group of users of performance-enhancing substances

    Thanks to the Internet, anabolic steroids, growth hormones, melanotan, weight loss products, botox and skin replenishers are available to everyone, with minimal risk of prosecution. Rebekah Brennen and her colleagues from the Waterform Institute of Technolody in Ireland conducted a review of various literature to investigate the steroid use patterns of people who ordered these substances on the Internet. Steroid doses ranged from 250 to 3,200 milligrams per week, while use lasted from 4 to 12 weeks. 95% stated to take more than 1,000 milligrams of testosterone in the week. Most of the side effects were moderate and included acne, gynecomastia (formation of breast tissue) and stretch marks. The group examined often took three or more preparations at the same time. The intake could be associated with the use of cocaine, training experience in years and training intensity. Respondents with a particularly high dose were less educated and drank less alcohol on average. Most of the subjects started taking the drug after the age of 21 and were not part of an organised sports team or organisation. Long-term athletes taking steroids often had lower blood pressure. These results show that the patterns of steroid use are much more multi-faceted than is often shown in the media. (Health and Social Care in the Community, published on 26 January 2016)

    Men lure women into steroid use

    The average male steroid user is 30 years old, active in sports, permanently employed and does not participate in any organised sport. A new phenomenon is women in their late twenties who use anabolic steroids to improve their body and sexual desire. A study conducted by Annica Borjesson at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden interviewed eight women who were active in sports and took steroids. Most women took two or more steroids for an average of 58 weeks. Five women reported having side effects such as changes in vocal pitch, enlargement of the clitoris or an increase in body hair. Seven of the eight women were in a relationship in which the partner had initiated the intake of the substances. (Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention and Policy 11:11,2016)

    Can growth hormones help to heal injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament?

    The anterior cruciate ligament prevents the tibia (the shin bone) from moving too far forward on the femur (thigh). Severe injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament usually lead to surgery and often mean a rest and rehabilitation period of up to one year. Many people with this type of injury experience arthritic changes in their knee. More than 200,000 people experience such an injury each year, making it a major public health problem. Mark Cuban, owner of NBA Dallas Mavericks, is currently funding research into the impact of human growth hormone on the recovery of anterior cruciate ligament surgery. At present, the human growth hormone is on the list of banned substances, but this could change if it turns out to help in the healing of such injuries. If it helps, the growth hormone will make the long rehabilitation process easier and more pleasant for many people. (IBTimes. com, January 6,2016)

    Growth hormones improve rehabilitation of burn victims

    Patients often lose weight and muscle mass after severe burns. Patients feel weak and fragile after particularly severe burns, which can prolong their rehabilitation process. Growth hormones could shorten this rehab time and improve the quality of life of burn victims, according to a study by June-Bum Kim from Hallym University College of Medicine in Seaoul, South Korea. The researchers investigated 33 third-degree burns in 33 patients on at least 20% of their body surface. These patients received weekly injections of two milligrams of human growth hormone for three months of rehabilitation. A placebo group, on the other hand, received a false growth hormone. The patients who received the real hormone showed improvements in maximum oxygen uptake, muscle mass, muscle strength and insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1). The growth hormone improved physical fitness and quality of life. (Groth hormones IGF Research, 27:1-6,2016).

    Testosterone changes performance in the ultimate game.

    Testosterone is a hormonal product of male testicles, and to a lesser extent of female ovaries. It is important for the development of the male genital organs, prostate and secondary sexual characteristics (facial hair, armpit and genital area hair, vocal breakage), libido, cognitive and physical development and sexual orientation. It also plays a role in complex human behaviour patterns such as negotiation and motivation. German scientists now found out that testosterone also influences the performance in a "behavioral game" called "the ultimate game". In this game the respondents react to sensible, unreasonable and neutral suggestions, in which money is also involved. Rational, reasonable players are addressed by rational offers that earn them money. Male and female players accept unreasonable offers more often after applying a gel of testosterone to their skin. MRI scans showed that testosterone activates the amygdala in the brain, which is responsible for emotional reactions. These results suggest that testosterone is involved in emotional reactions in human behavior. (Frontiers in Neuroscience, published online on 1 March 2016)

    why so serious? - Heath Ledger alias Joker in Batman the dark Knight... :evil:

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